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ARXIS - Litigation Consulting
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October 2017


Damage Calculations and Use of Experts
in Breach of Contract Matters

A common question in litigation matters is "What is the case worth?" In some areas of litigation, an attorney often is able to come up with an initial estimate without much help from an expert. However, breach of contract matters typically require a deeper level of analysis and therefore require the expertise of someone, such as a CPA, with an understanding of how to quantify the damages. The calculation of damages from the breach of a contract involves … the analysis of historical financial data, analysis of the current status of the parties involved, and projections of future economic activity. In most breach cases there is a basic formula used to calculate damages. In simple terms, the difference between what would have happened without the breach of contract and what did happen as a result of the breach of contract is the economic damage. Quantifying that difference is based on a combination of actual verifiable data, assumptions, and projections.

There are three phases of most damage calculations. First is the period from the commencement of the contract to the date of the "event" (breach). Generally, this is the period where data is most available, relevant, and reliable. The second phase is the period from the date of the breach to the date of trial. The information in this period is also reliable and relevant but, depending on the circumstances surrounding the breach, may not be readily available. The third phase is the period of time from date of trial into the future. This is the period where economic activity is projected and is, by definition, the least reliable or available. It is also the phase where assumptions play a significant role in the calculations. It must be prepared and presented in a form, though, that is relevant and persuasive.

Selecting the Right Expert

The role of the expert in a breach of contract matter is to assist the parties in quantifying the damages. This may involve assistance in discovery, developing reasonable assumptions, reading and interpreting contracts, compiling financial data, and presenting the data. Discovery will be based on the theory of damages being pursued and an experienced forensic accountant can drive a more efficient process of collecting and using relevant data.

Presentation of the conclusions and the basis for the conclusions is often critical to the success of the engagement. There are a lot of experts who can do an adequate or even superior job in the analysis stage but cannot present the data in a form that is understandable and reasonable for a trier of fact to adopt. Conversely, there are experts who tell a good story but do not have the analytical skills required. They either have others do the analysis and step in personally only to provide the testimony or they do scant analytical work and rely on their testifying skills to carry the day. Finding both skills in one expert brings efficiency to the damages phase of the case. Regardless of the venue (jury trial, bench trial, or arbitration) the ability to present the conclusions in an easily understood presentation that is backed up with substantial data not only can win the case, it can also assist in settling the case before incurring the expense of a trial.

Avoid These Traps

The following are some traps to avoid when retaining an expert to provide consultation and/or expert witness work in the damages phase of a breach of contract matter:

  • Retaining the damages expert right before trial (at the last minute) is common but dangerous. Depending on the circumstances, clients are sensitive to litigation costs and there is a working theory that the damage phase will be addressed if/when there is a decision that the damage actually took place. By doing so, any advantage of having a financial expert assisting with discovery and development of damages theories is lost. Additionally, experienced and busy financial experts will either be unavailable or have a policy of not taking on "last minute" cases.
  • Telling the expert what you want the damages to be is ultimately self-defeating. Reputable experts will not allow themselves to be used in that manner. Often, it comes out in trial either directly or by implication and has a negative impact on results.
  • Retaining an expert that is weak either analytically or in presentation skills is an unnecessary compromise. The expert should be allowed to prepare the necessary analysis as well as design exhibits with the client and lawyers that are clear, expressive, and persuasive. This is often an interactive process that results in a smooth presentation.

Service Profile:

Litigation Consulting Services for Commercial Litigation

Arxis Financial's "Litigation Consulting" practice provides objective and independent evaluation of the economic and financial issues involved in commercial and civil litigation. We have extensive experience working with legal counsel to resolve disputes in a wide variety of matters. Our professionals can perform an analysis to calculate lost revenues, lost profits, lost opportunities, and unjust enrichment, as well as to provide assistance in the defense against such claims. We investigate and analyze the financial evidence and provide meaningful insights.

Arxis Financial's professionals work with litigators through the evaluation of opposing party's claims, assistance in preparation of deposition and cross-examination questions, document request lists, other discovery assistance, analysis and calculation of damages, preparation of trial exhibits, and expert witness testimony.

Clients are particularly pleased with Arxis Financial's abilities to clearly, persuasively, and accurately present economic and financial evidence and opinions. Expert analysis and conclusions are presented in depositions and trial at local, state and federal court levels as well as mediation and arbitration. If you have a commercial litigation matter that you would like to discuss, please feel free to contact us.


Upcoming Speaking Engagements for Chris Hamilton

Chris Hamilton's upcoming presentations include:


  • "Valuation : Market Approach" presented toNACVA, Salt Lake City, UT
  • "Special Purpose Valuations" presented to NACVA, Salt Lake City, UT
  • "Valuation for Finance Rookies,"Salt Lake City, UT
  • "Valuation Fundamentals, Techniques, and Theories" presented to NACVA, Philadelphia, PA
  • "Fraud" presented to Beach Cowdrey Jenkins, Oxnard, CA
  • "The Forensic Accounting Mindset" (8 hour course) presented to Forensic Accounting Academy, New Orleans, LA (Oct)
  • "Intermediate Valuation" presented to NACVA, Chicago, IL
  • "Behavior Detection" (8 hour course)presented to Forensic Accounting Academy,Chicago, IL
  • "Intermediate and Advanced Forensic Financial Analysis" (8 hour course) presented to Forensic Accounting Academy,Chicago, IL

If you are interested in asking Mr. Hamilton to speak at your organization's upcoming meeting, please feel free to contact him.

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Chris Hamilton, CPA, CFE, CVA
Chris Hamilton, CPA, CFE, CVA
(805) 306-7890
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